Home (continued)

Registered users have access to

  • A wiki guide on the development of Semantic Information Models and data exchange messages, such as queries and responses, in formal languages using the Gellish Semantic Modeling Methodology.


  • Taxonomic Dictionary-Ontology

    The definition of formalized English (and formalized Dutch) is available in an Entry Level Edition and a Professional Edition. The Entry Level Edition is free of charge available via GitHub, together with the Entry Level Edition of the Gellish Communicator software. For the Professional Edition a license can be purchased on request.

  • The book ‘Semantic Information Modeling Methodology‘ for applying the Gellish languages. It describes a systematic approach for expressing and interpreting information, knowledge, requirements and definitions, while using a formalized natural language, such as Formal English. The book is illustrated with many practical examples.
  • The book ‘Semantic Information Modeling in Formalized Languages‘ explains how the formalized natural languages of the Gellish family are defined and how they can be extended in such a way that the languages enable universal information exchange and interoperability of systems. The book is also available as eBook.
  • The book ‘Formalized Natural Languages‘, Definition and Application of Universal Information Modeling Languages’ (2014). This is the 2nd edition of ‘Gellish, a Generic Extensible Ontological Language’ (2005); PhD, Delft University of Technology.
  • The book ‘Taxonomic Dictionary of Relations‘ provides definitions of kinds of relations and their denoting phrases and inverse phrases. The kinds of relations form the core of the definition of the Gellish Family of Formal Languages. The kinds of relations are also suitable to be used as ‘predicates’ or ‘properties’ in RDF/OWL based applications (also available in Dutch).


  • Information Management and Information Maturity Assessment Guide

Benefits of formal languages

A break-through for interoperability

Formal languages, such as Formal English and Formal Dutch (Formeel Nederlands) are a form of standardized computer interpretable subset of natural languages. Their definition includes a formal syntax (expression format) and an electronic Taxonomic Dictionary-Ontology. They enable expressing information, knowledge and requirements in a human and computer interpretable way that is ‘neutral’ and system independent. A formal language has an unlimited scope, in contrast to most conventional data models (databases) that have a fixed and limited scope. Gellish formalized languages are standardized formal subsets of natural languages. Their native syntax enable presentations in a tabular form, suitable for databases and data exchange messages. Other formats are also possible, such as RDF/XML. Gellish is compliant with ISO 16354 and an RDF implementation of Gellish is being standardized as ISO 15926-11.

Application of a formal language, such as Formal English, enables real interoperability or integration of data from different sources. It also enables integration of data, documents, and 2D drawings and 3D models. The language is generally applicable and is extensible. Its main application area’s are: the creation of compatible and consistent databases such as for system independent Product and Process Models, Facility Information Models (FIMs), Building Information Models (BIMs), product catalogs as well as knowledge and requirements, including business rules. Furthermore, it enables smooth data exchange between systems and business parties and eliminating costly data conversions in case of data migration and data integration. It is also applicable for development and application of electronic Dictionaries, Taxonomies, Thesauri and Ontologies.

The definition of Gellish Formal English, including the taxonomic dictionary-ontology is available for licensees or can be purchased via the webshop. Gellish can be used and implemented in various ways, including in conventional SQL database systems, or in XML, or in RDF, OWL or in simple CSV files or as spreadsheet tables. Gellish Formal English is an ’embedded language’, which means that it does not need a meta-language for its definition.

Read more about the exploitation of the power of:

  • Formal English
  • The Gellish Semantic Modeling Methodology

Formal Language variants

Formal English and Formal Dutch (Gellish Formeel Nederlands) are examples of formal languages variants from the Gellish family of formalized languages. Each concept in any of the formal languages in the family is represented by a unique identifer (a Gellish UID) which is an arbitrary language independent number. Translations of terms and phrases in various languages share the same UIDs. Thus different Gellish variants share the same concepts and kinds of relations, because their UIDs are identical although their terminology is different. This enables automated translation of Gellish expressions and models between natural languages for which formal dictionaries are available.
For example, Gellish formal domain dictionaries are available for Waste Water Terminology in English, French, German and Dutch conform the terms in ISO 16323.

Free available downloads:

  • The Gellish Syntax and Contextual Facts – Definition of Universal Semantic Databases and Data Exchange Messages (the Gellish Expression Format) which includes the definition of the Gellish Contextual Facts. See also an accompanying XML Schema of an earlier version.
  • An example of a Semantic Information Model of a Road, available in Gellish Formal English as well as in Formal Dutch (Formeel Nederlands)